Vitamin K oxide has been shown to be more active, heat stable and less allergenic compared to vitamin K. Topical applications of vitamin K oxide have been shown to hasten the healing process and reduce the severity of bruising after non-surgical and surgical interventions. Studies have shown that vitamin K oxide is effective in treating purpura that occurs after postprocedural treatment using PDL (pulsed dye laser) devices as well as assisting in the prevention of erythema post treatment. Due to role that this active metabolite plays in blood clotting as well as the probability for preventing bruising, it represents a likely treatment for dark under eye circles.
DELTA promotes consistently better skin research leading to consistently better skin products. For this reason, vitamin K oxide has been incorporated into serums applied post-treatment as well as in the DELTA eye cream.
Please refer to the below peer-reviewed published articles for more information regarding the human skin microbiome;